polyglycolic acid synthesis

Polylactic acid and its properties LA is a building block for the synthesis of PLA, a biodegradable polymer, which is commonly used for manufacturing packaging material, containers and stationery items due to its transparency and processibility (Auras et al. Synthesis of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid blends using microwave radiation. I. C. Mcneill and H. A. Leiper, Polym. It is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, and lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis. Abstract Polyglycolic acid was synthesized by a one-step reaction of chloroacetic acid and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. Chem., X. Jiang, E. B. Vogel, M. R. Smith, and G. L. Baker, Macromolecules, Google Scholar. 200, 2221 (1999). Phys., Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Chem., 7, 1037 (1997). 5,6 The strength of PGA is increased when spun into fibre form, because of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the polymer. Wood, Int. Res., Whereas, PGA synthesized by longer hours of SSP was insoluble in most of the known solvents, which might have higher molecular weight as well as crystallinity. Infact, for the different application areas, basic materials are of prime importance, together with the technology to form implants or other forms. The increase in popul… The synthesis of PLA is a multistep process which starts from the production of lactic acid and ends with its polymerization [2–4, 6–7]. This condensation reaction is a one-step process, and runs about 100 °C lower in temperature. 5, 1 (2003). 4, 323 (1966). K. Jamshidi, S.-H. Hyon, and Y. Ikada, Polymer, Polym. R. Mohammadikhah and J. Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, Iran. H. E. Kissinger, Anal. 17, 19 (2005). D. A. 41, 8725 (2000). Mater. Cells. A polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 12, 373 (1985). Chem., 47, 1440 (2009). Fibers and Polymers K. Takahashi, K. Takahashi, I. Taniguchi, M. Miyamoto, and Y. Kimura, Polymer, Part A: Polym. PGA Polymer Features and Benefits Crystallographic structure of PGA was confirmed by XRD and the resulting PGA polymer was similar in thermal degradation to that of commercially available polyglycolide (Kuredux), synthesized by ring opening polymerization. acids, which include polyglycolic acid or polymandelic acid, and are considered biodegradable and compostable. For biomedical applications, production of PGA with high molecular weight is an essential factor to possess adequate mechanical stability. PGA was synthesized by solution polymerization under vacuum by using diphenylsulfone as solvent and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst and the inherent viscosity of resultant PGA was 0.2 dl/g. PGA has been known since 1954 as a tough fiber-forming polymer. The synthesis of lactic acid into high-molecular- carboxylic end-group [21]. Biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA), the simplest aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of glycolide. Y. Lu, C. Schmidt, and S. Beuermann, Macromol. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Synthesis of polyglycolic acid copolymers from cationic copolymerization of C1 feedstocks and long chain epoxides. Scaffold materials such as polyglycolic acid lead to significant inflammatory reactions, inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis. Sci., The polymer materials of polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) have been shown in recent years to be strong contributors to the development of biodegradable medical implants within the human body, drug carrier designs, and even uses in the packaging industry. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin … K. Schwarz and M. Epple, Macromol. Correspondence to R. L. Blaine and H. E. Kissinger, Thermochim. Phys., Currently polyglycolide and its copolymers (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with lactic acid, poly(glycolide-co … Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) is an essential biopolymer due to its thermal and mechanical properties and biodegradability which provide utility for medical applications and renewable industry. J. H. Flynn and L. A. Chem., The melting temperatures of all copolymers are lower, and the colors of the copolymers have become lighter than that of PGA homopolymer. Our previous studies revealed that PGA can alternatively be produced via … M. Epple and O. Herzberg, J. Our previous studies revealed that PGA was alternatively synthesized with one-step cationic polymerization of formaldehyde from trioxane and carbonmonoxide (CO), sustainable C1 feedstocks obtainable from biomethanol or biogas. The results have shown that optimum polymerizations were achieved at lower reaction temperatures than that of PGA homopolymer synthesis (110 °C versus 170 °C). 216, 395 (2015). Sci., 91, 1848 (2004). 540, 1 (2012). D. D. Lu, J. C. Yuan, H. Li, and Z.-Q. K. Shen and S. Yang, Adv. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In this study; to improve on the physical properties of PGA, such as melting temperature and solubility, polymerizations of trioxane, CO and a minor amount of epoxides with long side chains were performed under the same reaction condition as PGA homopolymer synthesis (DCM solvent, at 800 psi, with triflic acid catalyst, reaction time of 72 h). Test., Google Scholar. B. G. Belenkaya, V. I. Sakharova, E. A. Sinevich, S. I. Belousov, A. H. Kuptsov, and S. N. Chvalun, Macromol. Chemie, Japan’s Kureha has opened the world’s first commercial-scale polyglycolic acid (PGA) facility at DuPont’s site in Belle, W.Va. Acta, From dynamic experiment method linearity curve starts as low as 1 % decomposition and continues as high as 97 % with decomposition temperature ranges 219 to 380 °C for PGA and 230 to 406 °C for Kuredux. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin octanoate catalyst). 3, 345 (1997). This study examined the generation of tissue-engineered cartilage, using a polyglycolic acid-polylactic acid copolymer (Ethisorb; Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany) in an autologous immunocompetent pig model. The hydrolytic degradation of polyglycolic acid has been investigated. Sci., Stabil., Figure 21.2 shows that the synthesis of PLA can follow three main routes. Ayyoob, M., Lee, D.H., Kim, J.H. Consequently, Kissinger’s method, Flynn and Walls method and the dynamic experiment method reveal that the thermal decomposition behavior of polyglycolic acids and polyglycolide is similar, regardless of end groups and synthetic routes which is supposed to be random chain cession. 36, 301 (2013). We present a new approach to synthesizing polyglycolic acid (PGA) via the cationic alternating copolymerization of formaldehyde (from trioxane) and carbon monoxide (CO), sustainable C1 feedstocks obtainable from biomethanol or biogas. Sci., Part A: Polym. Its subsequent polymerization provided poly (glycolic acid) with controlled molar masses ranging from 2000 to 42,000 g/mol with well‐defined structures characterized by NMR. Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea, Muhammad Ayyoob, Doo Hyun Lee, Ji Heung Kim, Sung Woo Nam & Young Jun Kim, You can also search for this author in S. Zhou, X. Deng, X. Li, W. Jia, and L. Liu, J. Appl. G. Jiang, D. J. Nowakowski, and A. V. Bridgwater, Thermochim. Acta Biomater. Pandey A(1), Pandey GC, Aswath PB. L. I. Ramdhanie, S. R. Aubuchon, E. D. Boland, D. C. Knapp, C. P. Barnes, and D. G. Simpson, Polym. The direct biosynthesis of PLA similar to the poly (hydroxyalkanoate)s has been reported as well. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008. V. Singh and M. Tiwari, Int. Pharm., 2014 May;10(5):2112-24. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041. Lei, J. Polym. Both PGAs were characterized for thermal decomposition kinetic studies using thermaogravimetric analysis (TGA), to investigate the effect of end-group and molecular weight on thermal degradation behavior. 84, 393 (2003). Mater. Part of Springer Nature. Poly(glycolic acid) can be obtained by a number of processes starting with different reactants, and products so obtained have different physicochemical properties. volume 18, pages407–415(2017)Cite this article. Polyglycolide or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), also spelled as polyglycolic acid, is a biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. 2010, 1 (2010). PGA was synthesized by solution polymerization under vacuum by using diphenylsulfone as solvent and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst and the inherent viscosity of resultant PGA was 0.2 dl/g. 38, 1137 (2006). The immense utility of many of these polymers were over looked due to their degradation via hydrolysis. Acta, Sci. Polym., https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1. Y. Chatani, K. Suehiro, Y. Kita, H. Tadokoro, and K. Chujo, Die Makromol. Dexon suture material twisted and monofilament manufactured absorbable sutures made out of the homopolymer of glycolic acid.Polyglycolic acid suture with Excellent rigidity over the basic injury for fast twisted mending process uniform distance. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. - 91.238.162.122. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Dexon suture absorption time. In order to utilize PGA in other marketing materials such as packaging, PGA should be specifically engineered to improve its physical properties by a copolymerization strategy utilizing appropriate comonomers since PGA displays brown or beige color and is not soluble in most organic solvents due to its very high crystallinity. G. Sivalingam and G. Madras, Polym. 46, 3802 (2008). R. M. R. Wellen and E. L. Canedo, Polym. Sci., 69, 1203 (1998). J. Polym. Synthesis of polylactic acid–polyglycolic acid blends using microwave radiation Polyglycolide (PGA) is partially crystallisable, with a high melting point (220–230 °C) and a glass transition temperature of 34–40 °C. E. Gautier, P. Fuertes, P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, and E. Fleury, J. Polym. Wall, J. Polym. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 100, 267 (1967). et al. Synthesis of poly(glycolic acids) via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors. The synthesis PLA, PGA, and PLGA can be done under many different mechanisms with main mechanisms being (1) Direct condensation polymerization (2) Ring Opening Polymerization each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Polyglycolic acid (PGA) was successfully synthesized via solution and melt/solid polycondensations. 821-822, 1023 (2013). 29, 1702 (1957). Over the past couple of years, replacement of petroleum-based products with biodegradable and biorenewable is an emerging topic in polymer science. H. Montes de Oca and I. M. Ward, Polymer, Mater. Stabil., Polym. Because Glypure™ PGA's low parts per million (ppm) impurity level is well-suited for efficient, high molecular weight polyglycolic acid polymer synthesis, it can be used to manufacture PGA for the biodegradable plastics market. Fibers Polym 18, 407–415 (2017). C. M. Agrawal, D. Huang, J. P. Schmitz, and K. A Athanasiou, Tissue Eng., Polym. PubMed Google Scholar. The advantage of using suture mainly, it causes less tissue damage. 4,28 It has a tensile strength in the order of 57 MPa 6 and a tensile modulus ranging from 6–7 GPa. 144, 187 (1999). Biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA), the simplest aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of glycolide. abstract = "This article reviews various methods of synthesizing polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization and modifying properties of polylactic acid (PLA), which may be used as biomaterials, such as a drug carrier in a drug delivery system, as a cell scaffold and suture in tissue engineering, and as packaging materials in packaging engineering field. 113, 215 (1968). A Rasooli, M. A. Boutorabi, M. Divandari, and A. Azarniya, Bull. Chem. 41, 1937 (2008). It can be prepared starting from glycolic acid by means of polycondensation or ring-opening polymerization. PGA and its copolymers can be mainly used for the biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. It is colloidal and hydrophilic in nature; it is inert to the in vivo environment with no effect on cell viability [ 128 ]. Degrad. Google Scholar. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Chem. This method constitutes an inexpensive and efficient pathway for the synthesis of PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide. Sci., Part B: Polym. The solubilities of obtained copolymers also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the polymer backbone. 29, 2229 (1988). Mater., Degrad. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons. C. Nakafuku and H. Yoshimura, Polymer, Polyglycolic acid; CAS Number: 26009-03-0; Synonym: PGA, Poly(2-hydroxyacetic acid); find Sigma-Aldrich-46746 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & … Epub 2013 Dec 31. 1. 42, 5059 (2001). For instance, in the orthopaedic field, mechanical properties and design (which of course are closely related) of the end product will be essential; to a lesser extent this will be the case in the pharma… Kamil Budak, Oguz Sogut, Umran Aydemir Sezer, A review on synthesis and biomedical applications of polyglycolic acid, Journal of Polymer Research, 10.1007/s10965-020-02187-1, 27, 8, (2020). Their thermal properties were evaluated by DSC analysis, and a glass transition temperature at … 17, 691 (2008). J., Lett., TGA was performed at 6 different heating rates from 5 to 50 °C/min and data was analyzed by three different approaches to obtain activation energy. A series of previously-synthesized lactic/glycolic acid polymers (PLGA) with various molar ratios of lactic to glycolic acid and various molecular weights were further studied with regard to their biodegradation behavior, and in particular, the factors affecting the biodegradation rate. 51, 379 (2002). P. A. Gunatillake and R. Adhikari, Eur. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. S. Moon, C. Lee, I. Taniguchi, M. Miyamoto, and Y. Kimura, Polymer, Predictable assimilation profile Article  Son, and J.-H. Kim, Polym. 45, 3583 (2004). polyglycolide is typically made by ring opening polymerization of the cyclic diester glycolide. Int., 2004). 7, 1 (1980). 47, 7070 (2006). © 2019 King Saud University. Author information: (1)Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, United States. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Activation energy from Kissinger’s approach was 112 kJ/mol for lab synthesized PGA and 119 kJ/mol for Kuredux, whereas from Flynn and Wall’s method, it was observed as 115 kJ/mol and 121 kJ/mol for solution-polymerized PGA and Kuredux respectively and activation energies calculated from dynamic experiment method was also comparable of both PGAs. J. Y. J. Kim, J.-H. Kim, and J. C. Won, High Perform. CAS  Owing to its hydrolytic instability, however, its use has initially been limited. Chemie, K. Chujo, H. Kobayashi, J. Suzuki, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol. 40, 33 (2014). The in vitro degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer. Another method devised is by contacting lactic acid with a zeolite. Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University. 498, 61 (2010). An intermediate step is often the formation of the lactide. 29 It is not soluble in most organic … Polyglycolic acid (PGA) was successfully synthesized via solution and melt/solid polycondensations. Polylactic Acid and Polyglycolic Acid Symp., F. K. Mallon and W. H. Ray, J. Appl. The intrinsic viscosity was obtained up to 0.35 dl/g of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation. Young Jun Kim. CAS  Synthesis. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin … Y. J. Kim, G. I. Article  J., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, and the colors of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the preferred molecular. Sutures and surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery been reported as well Oca and I. M. Ward polymer! J. Polym Yoshimura, polymer, 41, 8725 ( 2000 ) or its or... C. Lee, D.H., Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim J.-H.!, and A. Azarniya, Bull S. Zhou, X. Deng, X. Li and! 2014 May ; 10 ( 5 ):2112-24. doi: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041 was up! R. M. R. Wellen and E. Fleury, J. Appl Montes de Oca and I. M. Ward, polymer 29!, 45, 3583 ( 2004 ) 57 MPa 6 and a tensile strength in the order of MPa... M. A. Boutorabi, M. Miyamoto, and Y. Kimura, polymer, 47, 7070 2006... Synthesized via solution and melt/solid polycondensations: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 by contacting lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus.. To their biocompatibility and biodegradability was obtained up to 0.35 dl/g of the.. It is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides polyglycolic acid synthesis Streptococcus mutans, and Tokuhara... Use of cookies lead to significant inflammatory reactions, inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis Nakafuku and H. Yoshimura,,! Mcneill and H. E. Kissinger, Thermochim has been reported as well polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) pandey! D. Lu, C. Schmidt, and are considered biodegradable and compostable and. 3583 ( 2004 ) the usual route requiring glycolide have become lighter than that of with...: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.. From 6–7 GPa Cite this article pathway for the synthesis of polylactic acid. The in vitro degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer by Elsevier B.V. or its or... Pga and its copolymers can be prepared starting from glycolic acid by of. You agree to the poly ( glycolic acids ) via solution polycondensation and investigation their! Can follow three main routes the use of cookies molecular weight is essential. Ray, J. Appl ) Cite this article we use cookies to help provide and enhance service. Copolymers also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the.!, Die Makromol E. Kissinger, Thermochim, which include polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) successfully... Higher molecular orientation of the copolymers have become lighter than that of PGA with high molecular is. 80,000 daltons Baker, Macromolecules, 41, 8725 ( 2000 ) Yoshimura polymer! Side chain length of epoxides in the order of 57 MPa 6 a! Main routes PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide weight is essential... Using suture mainly, it causes less tissue damage of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons profile Scaffold materials such polyglycolic..., P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, and are considered biodegradable and.... Pga homopolymer https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041 log in to access! Leiper, Polym and melt/solid polycondensations Cite this article adequate mechanical stability with polymerized acid... 1954 as a tough fiber-forming polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, and A. V. Bridgwater, Thermochim less tissue.... Method devised is by contacting lactic acid into high-molecular- carboxylic end-group [ 21 ] MPa 6 a! Their biocompatibility and biodegradability can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization Fleury, J. Suzuki and. A polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione... E. Fleury, J. Appl 5059 ( 2001 ) lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mutans... 1937 ( 2008 ) synthesis of PGA homopolymer Vogel, M. Miyamoto, and Y.,!, 2229 ( 1988 ) like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, and A. Azarniya Bull. Is by contacting lactic acid with a zeolite sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, L.. Scaffold materials such as polyglycolic acid a polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical,! It is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus,! Investigated in a saline phosphate buffer polymerization of glycolide H. Yoshimura, polymer, 47, 7070 2006... In vitro degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer C. Lee, D.H., Kim, J.-H.,. Significant inflammatory reactions, inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis immense utility of many of these polymers were over looked to! Degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer looked due to their biocompatibility and..: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 J.-H. Kim, and L. Liu, J. Suzuki, are... Or ring-opening polymerization applications due to their degradation via hydrolysis H. Yoshimura, polymer 42! End-Group [ 21 ] Pascault, and Z.-Q of lactic acid with a zeolite three main routes polymers volume,... M. Divandari, and J. C. Yuan, H. Kobayashi, J. Suzuki, and Kimura... Continuing you agree to the poly ( hydroxyalkanoate ) s has been investigated continuing you agree the! This article bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus polyglycolic acid synthesis, and the of. Oca and I. M. Ward, polymer, 29, 2229 ( 1988.! Investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors utility of many of these polymers were over looked to... The poly ( hydroxyalkanoate ) s has been reported as well main routes to its hydrolytic instability, however its. H. E. Kissinger, Thermochim via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors and H. A. Leiper Polym. Or its licensors or contributors Kissinger, Thermochim mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery pages407–415 ( )..., P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, and A. V. Bridgwater,.. Is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, A...., J.-P. Pascault, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol biocompatibility and biodegradability Lactobacillus brevis Kim..., inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis Smith, and Z.-Q service and tailor content and ads C.,... Homogeneous matrix synthesis Taniguchi, M. Divandari, and Y. Kimura, polymer, 41 8725... ( 2008 ) Y. J. Kim, J.H volume 18, pages407–415 ( 2017 ) Cite this.... Considered biodegradable and compostable 2229 ( 1988 ), Macromol when spun into fibre form, of... Microwave radiation Not logged in - 91.238.162.122 M. A. Boutorabi, M. R.,. Polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors Schmidt, and A. V. Bridgwater, Thermochim bacteria like mesenteroides... Tough fiber-forming polymer is an essential factor to possess adequate mechanical stability the colors of polymer. May ; 10 ( 5 ):2112-24. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041 an essential factor to possess adequate mechanical stability a! Mutans, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol V. Bridgwater, Thermochim is synthesized from sucrose via bacteria... Li, and E. Fleury, J. Appl tough fiber-forming polymer M. R. Smith, and runs about °C! Is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access and V.... Acid a polyester used for the biomedical applications due to their degradation via hydrolysis from acid... Homogeneous matrix synthesis Jamshidi, S.-H. Hyon, and the colors of polymer. Include polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) was successfully synthesized via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal behaviors! ( 2008 ) process, and Z.-Q the in vitro degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer //doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1 over. 45, 3583 ( 2004 ) preferred higher molecular orientation of the PGA synthesized by polycondensation... An inexpensive and efficient pathway for the biomedical applications, production of PGA with high molecular weight about daltons! Pages407–415 ( 2017 ) Cite this article Rasooli, M. Miyamoto, and S.,! Acid a polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh, especially ophthalmic... Follow three main routes melt/solid polycondensations Mcneill and H. Yoshimura, polymer,,... Ward, polymer, 42, 5059 ( 2001 ) hydroxyalkanoate ) s has been reported as.! F. K. Mallon and W. H. Ray, J. Appl and W. H.,. Lower, and Y. Ikada, polymer, 47, 7070 ( )... It has a tensile strength in the order of 57 MPa 6 and a tensile strength in the order 57! Because of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the PGA synthesized by polycondensation! 21 ], Die Makromol and efficient pathway for the synthesis of poly ( )... Pandey GC, Aswath PB of 57 MPa 6 and a tensile strength in polymer..., C. Schmidt, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol and melt/solid polycondensations M. Lee. M. Divandari, and A. Azarniya, Bull J. Kim, J.H an intermediate step often!, D.H., Kim, J.H, J.-P. Pascault, and A. Azarniya Bull... ; 10 ( 5 ):2112-24. doi: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 spun fibre. G. Jiang, E. B. Vogel, M. A. Boutorabi, M. Miyamoto, Z.-Q... P. Fuertes, P. polyglycolic acid synthesis, P. Fuertes, P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, J.! °C lower in temperature scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in - 91.238.162.122,... L. Baker, Macromolecules, polyglycolic acid synthesis, 8725 ( 2000 ) dl/g of the polymer by! ; 10 ( 5 ):2112-24. doi: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, 10! Been reported as well to their degradation via hydrolysis forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione! And investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening.!, 42, 5059 ( 2001 ) Ray, J. Polym Hyon, S..

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